The Book of Salah (Prayer)
– It has preceded that Tahaarah is one of the pre-requisites for Salaah.
– The time is one of the important aspect of the Salah. If you’ve only done half the salat before time expires, eg, one raka of fajr before sunrise, then we consider the salat as performed before the expiration time, The best method is to render salat at beginning of time. Why whenever Salah time comes, there is a condition on you , by doing it early you lifted up the condition early.
Whoever misses some of their Salah, it is encumbment upon them to make them up their Salah as soon as they recognizes it.
– Awrah – covering your awrah which is permissible to use, halaal and permissible clothes, no one should be able to see the skin underneath them. Awra of the one who in Salaah is not the same as the covering of awrah outside the salah.
eg: Woman’s awra which in salah she can show but when she goes out she cannot.
– Facing the Qiblah.
– Niyah – set motive in the heart – rendering this particular salaah etc..
– Salaah may be performed in any location, except in a physically impure place, on unlawfully taken land, in a graveyard, bathroom, or camel’s pasture.
Chapter: The Salaah Described
– Go calm and dignified to masjid: sakeenah – (heart content) contented manner. waqar: limbs also contented.
When Enter Masjid : say Bismillaah. Was-salaatu was-salaamu ‘ala Rasoolillaah. Allaahumma-ghfirlee dhunoobi, waf-tah lee abwaaba rahmatik.
when leaving the masjid: we say: Bismillaah. Was-salaatu was-salaamu ‘ala Rasoolillaah. Allaahumma-ghfirlee dhunoobi WA AS ALUKA MIN FADHLIK)(this is establishedin the sunnah)
Then, when standing (for prayer), he should say the Takbir:
“Allah is the greatest.” (Allaahu akbar).
Then, he should raise his arms to the level of his shoulders or parallel to his ears, and this is done in four places in the Salah: Raise hands so fingers or wrists are parallel to edge of shoulders,(or earlobes) both acceptable.
* With the opening Takbir
* With the Ruku’ (bowing)
* When rising from the Ruku’
* When standing after the first Tashahhud.
– Then, he should place his hands above or below his navel, or on his chest – all hadith speaks about these unauthentic, Hadith reported byAli to keep above navel are weak & to keep on chest by Ibn Khuzaimah – Isnad (chain of narration) are unknown (majhool) . So we can choose, above navel, below, or on chest. No particular recommendation.
Then, he should place his hands above or below his navel, or on his chest, and say: “Glory be to You, O Allah, and for you is praise. Blessed is Your name and most high is Your honour. There is no Lord besides You.”
(Subhnaanaka Allaahumma wa bihamdik. Wa tabaarakak asmuka, wa ta’aala jadduka, wa laa ilaaha ghairuka.) He may instead say any other of the opening prophetic supplications.
He should then seek refuge with Allah from Satan by saying: “I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Satan.” (A’oothu billaahi min ash-shaytaan ir-rajeem), and then say: “In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of mercy.” (Bismillaahir Rahmaani Raheem).
– Ishtiaaza … AUDHUBILLAH
– audhubillah at beginning of salah or every rakat? different opinions.- Most correct opinion is Best is every rakat.
– BASMALLAH. – – Basmallah, beginning of every rakat.
Imaam as Shafi : say basmallah is a verse of surah fatihaa, so must be recited or salah is null and void. imam malik : better not to say bismillah for Surah Fatiha and instead start with Alhamdulillah rabbil A’lameen. Imam Abu hanifa: basmallah is not part of surah fatiha, however is better to recite softly. (Abu Hanifa opinion is the best according to our sheikh)
He should then read Surat al-Fatihah, and after that in the first two Rak’ah’s (units) of the three or four unit Salahs another chapter which should be:
For Fajr, a long separated verse (the first of which is Qaf) ,For Maghrib, a short one, And for the rest, medium ones.
All these details mentioned about salaaah in our book teaches us how eager the sahaba were to get every single detail exactly right.
After this, he should make a Takbir for Ruku’ and then place his hands on his kneecaps, ensuring his head is level with his back. He should then say: “Glory to my Lord, the Great.” (Subhaana Rabb’il Adheem). He should repeat this.
It is permissable for a person to add in his Ruku’ or Sujud (prostrating): “Glory be to you, O Allah, My Lord, for you is praise; O Allah, forgive me.” (Subhaanaka Allaahu wa bihamdika, Allaahuma’gh firlee).
He should then raise his head, if he is leading the prayer or praying alone, saying: “Allah hears the one who praises Him.” (Sami’ Allaahu limann hamida), and then, say (whether leading, being led, or praying alone): “Our Lord, and to You is the praise, as much as it can be and as pure and blessed as it can be.” (Rabbana lakal hamd; hamdan katheeran tayyiban mubaarakan feeh) and then:
“(That praise which would) fill the heavens and fill the earth and that which would please You will besides (them).” (mali’u’s samaa’ wa mali’ul ardh wa mali’u ma shi’ta ba’d.)
In regards to placing of hand after ruku, mashrooh – from shariah is to place one right hand on their left. Malikiya scholars says you dont place right hand on your left but the their view go against the sunnah. The correct view is with placing hands one right hand on their left. Allah knows Best.
Then, he should go down in prostration on seven limbs , as the Prophet (s) said: “I have been commanded to prostrate myself on seven limbs: the forehead (and then pointed with his hand towards his nose, hands, feet, and the extremities of the feet).” [Agreed Upon]
Note: If all seven do not touch the ground at some point of your sijda- then only will your sijda be null and void. However it is very important to try and ensure all seven touch throughout the sijdah.
Then, he should say: “Glory to my Lord, the Most High.” (Subhaana Rabiyy al-A’laa) Then he should do a Takeer and sit upon his left leg and prop up the right one – and this is known as Iftirash – and he should do this during all sittings in his Salah except the second Tashahhud. During the second ‘tashahhud’ he should then do what is known as Tawarruk, which is to sit on the floor and have one’s left leg out (at a right-angle) from under the right one. He should then say: “My Lord, forgive me, have mercy upon me, guide me, provide for me, console me and grant me well being.” (Rabbi’gh firlee war-hamnee, wah-danee, war-zuqnee, waj-barnee, wa ‘aafinee)
Then he should prostrate again in the same manner as he did the first time. Then he should rise (leaning) upon the front end of his feet. Then he should pray the second Rak’ah just as he did the first. Then, he sits for the first Tashahhud, and its description (i.e., it is said) as follows: “All compliments are for Allah and all prayers and all the good things (are for Him). Peace be on you, O Prophet, and may Allah’s mercy and blessings (be upon you). And peace be on us and on the good (pious) worshippers of Allah. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.”(At-Tahiyyaatu lillaahi wassalaawaatu, wat-tayyibaatu; as-salaamu ‘alayka ayyuhaannabiyyu, wa rahmatullahi wa barakaatu; as-salaamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibaadillaahi’s-saaliheen; ash-hadu al-laailaaha illallaah, wash’hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu).
Then, he should make a Takbeer and pray the rest of his Salaah with the recitation of Surat al-Faatihah in every Rak’ah. Then, he should make the final Tashahhud, exactly like the one mentioned (previously) , with the addition of: “O Allah, shower blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you showered blessings upon the family of Ibrahim. You are the Praiseworthy and Glorious And grant favours to Muhammad and to the family of Muhammad as you granted favours the family of Ibrahim. You are the Praiseworthy and Glorious.” (Allaahumma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala aali Muhammaddin, kama salayta ‘ala aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedun Majeed. Allaahumma baarik ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala aali Muhammadin, kama baarakta ‘ala aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedum Majeed.) [Bukhari]
and: “I seek refuge in Allah from the punishment of Hell, and from the punishment of the grave, and from the trials of living and dying, and from the trial of the Antichrist.” (A’oodhubillaahi min ‘adhaabi jahannam, wa min ‘adhaab ilqabr, wa min fitnatil mahyaa wa mamaat, wa min fitnatil maseeh id-dajaal.) [Bukhari]
Then, he should supplicate to Allah for whatever wishes. Finally, he makes the Tasleem on his right and then his left, saying: “May peace and the mercy of Allah be upon you.” (Assalaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah) [Abu Dawud]
– Before saying salaam after all supplications of Tashhud, you may do addition supplications you wish but concerning what you can supplication, there is a difference of opinion among Ulamas (Scholars) regarding whether you can ask for worldly things because salaah should be only for the sake of Allah or whether you can ask for duniya things at this time ( before salams). Most correct view, is supplicate for that which you desire.
Allah Knows Best.
Source: Taken from Course-Lecture3: by Shaikh Saad ibn Naasir Al Shithry, a former member of the Senior Scholars’ Council of Saudia Arabia and the Vice-President of KIU based on the book ’Manhaj As Salikin’ (The Methodology of the Traveller and a Clarification of Fiqh of the Religion) by Shaikh Abdur -Rahman As-Sa’di.