The Book of Taharah (Purification)


The Prophet (s) said: “Islam is based on (the following) five 

(principles): To testify that none has the right to be worshipped 

but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger; To offer the 

(compulsory) prayers; To pay the Zakah (i.e., obligatory charity); 

To perform Hajj (i.e., pilgrimage to Makkah); and to observe 

fasting during the month of Ramadhan.” [Agreed Upon] 

1st part of Shahadah, Each and everyone should make sure they worship Allah with complete sincerety that worship should be for Allah alone.  

There are four Factors met for the worship to be correct: 

1. Al Muhabbah li maabood – Love for the one you are worshipping i.e. for Allah in the complete sense – walladeena amanu ashaddu hubban lillah – The believers are most loving of Allah and even greater love. 

2. Al Khudoo – being humble in your worship of Allah, WORSHIP MEANS to humble yourself. 

3. Al Khouf – Wa khafooni inkuntum momineen. FEAR ME IF YOU ARE  TRUE BELEIVER. 

4. Ar Raja – having hope in Allah to get reward and to be saved from the punishment of Allah. 

2nd part of Shahadah: anna muhammadan rasoolullallah. 

Another 4 aspects. 

a. Believing everything that Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam came with. 

b. Following everything that Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam commanded us tofollow. 

c. Loving Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam and giving precedence to his love over and above the love for yourself, parents and everything in existence and all of mankind in existence. 

d. Don’t worship Allah except in the manner Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam taught us to worship Allah. 

2. Second Pillar-  Salaah 

The Salah (prayer) has certain pre-requisites, the absence of which would render it null-and-void.

Among these is Taharah, as the Prophet (s) said: “Allah will not accept Salah without (prior) purification).” [Agreed Upon]

Thus, whoever does not purify himself from any major and minor Hadath (ritual impurity) and Najasah (physical impurity) has no Salah.

Hadath refers to ritual impurity such as being in a state that requires wudhu or ghusl. 

Najaasah refers to physical impurity, such as spilled blood of a sacrificed animal. 

Thus hadath is not najaasah… 

There are two things that prevent one’s salah from being correct and complete – one is hadath al akber and hadath al asghar. 

a) Hadath al akbar – greater state and stage of ritual impurity: 

􀂾 Sexual intercourse with their spouse – junoob 

􀂾 Women in Menses – monthly periods – haid 

􀂾 Women experiencing Post partum bleeding – post birth bleeding – nifaas 

All these things dictate that you wash your entire body, you do ghusl 

b) Hadith al asgar – lighter state of ritual impurity. 

􀂾 Urination 

􀂾 Going to bathroom to relieve etc. 

􀂾 Passing wind 

Just wash the external limbs and perform wudu – no need to wash the entire body. 

Water – two types mentioned by author but the shaik is going to mention 3 types.

Three Types of water:

 1. Tahoor – something that is pure in itself and purifies others

E.g.: water in natural state, Water from rain, ocean, stream, water from ice  

2. Thahir – something that is pure in itself and but cannot be used to purify others

E.g.: Lemon into water and it is lemon juice

Stronger opinion: This category does not exist (Ibn Taymiyya, Imam Ahmad, etc)

Correct response:  it is not water rather it is lemon juice because of change in qualities of water. It cannot be used for Wudhu. 

3. Najis – something that is filthy in itself and cannot be used to purify others

 E.g.: water in a tub which is urinated by someone. A few drops of urine doesn’t make it najas, if that doesn’t change the quality. 

Principle rule in  Shariah: Everything is pure and permissible unless stated otherwise. Eg: If some one gave us a Cup or plate and if there is no evidence to prove the najaasha the cup or plate then it is considered clean. In the outset everything is pure and clean unless you have evidences to support the impurity. One does not need to hunt for the evidences when some one offered a cup or plate, in the outset it is pure and clean.

Somebody doubts whether his water or clothing are physically pure or not, then one should follow the above rule. i.e everything is pure. 

Shak means doubt: Doubting between two equal factors 50% – 50% but not doubting with 60% – 40% or some other unequal percentage. 

If some one took ablution and then at the time of salaah he doubts that broke his wudhu, then in the outset it is considered that his wudhu is valid and he can render the Salaah.

If some one answered to the call of nature and then he doubts he performed wudhu or not, then in the outset it is considered that he is in state of ritual impurity and he has to perform wudhu in order to render salaah. 

Utensils (al aniyah) – should follow the above rule, except for the utensils made of silver and gold as mentioned in the hadith in text book. Reason for this because 

􀂾 it makes one to feel proud, 

􀂾 a sort of arrogance, 

􀂾 feeds the ego, 

􀂾 feels they are above others, 

􀂾 makes the poor feel jealous. 

Manners of answering the call of nature: practice of relieving yourself. i.e., going to Toilet, washroom to relieve yourself. 

1. make dua before entering the toilet to be protected from male and female jinn, it is preferred to say the dua even if someone is entering the toilet to wash hands or clothes. 

2. after leaving toilet, recite the prayer ghufranak (I seek your forgiveness) found in authentic hadith. Another dua alhamdullahillazi ad’haba … – praise be to Allah who protected me from harm … this dua was mentioned in sunan, many ulemah said it is weak, it is not so authentic, so just saying ghufranak is enough. 

3. Relieving in open areas eg: deserts – to walk a distance away from people and make sure no one sees his/her private parts. 

4. Not permissible in important places where people travel such as road,place where people sits upon, underneath a tree which bear fruits, harms the people by relieving at such places. 

5. One should not relieve facing/back facing Qiblah while in open area. But using toilets inside a building this rule does not apply, because Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam relieved while facing kabah and baitul maqdis in the toilet.. 

6. Clean with 3 stones or with toilet paper or tissue the affected area. But dung and bones should not be used to clean. Papers with important papers such as money, documents and sacred texts,paper has knowledge, paper with respected names on it also should not be used.  He can use water also to clean the affected area. The best way to clean is to clean with stones or like and water, second best way is to clean only with water, third is to clean only with stones or like. If he uses the third option i.e. cleans with only stones or like , he will be still considered as pure and he can peform wudhu and do his salah.

Types of physical impurities and how to remove them. 

1. If a dog licks any of the utensils, then supposed to wash 7 times, one of it should be with dirt. This hadith is specific to the case if the dog licks. But if the saliva fell down on cloths, then just washing that part one time is enough. Can we substitute soap or shampoo instead of dirt – ulemah differed. 

2. Dam Al Mashooh –Blood spilled out / poured when sacrificed an animal: impure and haraam  it is not permitted to use. But the blood remains in flesh/muscles and veins is pure. It is permissible to use it. 

3. Wild animals: all impure – wild animals here are those animals that hunt other animals and eat them. 

4. All dead animals: all impure except those which were slaughtered, fish and locust. 

5. Mani  – Sperm: pure – which comes out of men due to sexual desire, in aroused condition, comes out with force. – if it comes out of you with desire etc— you have to perform ghusl in order to purify. 

wadi – a light fluid – come out from men sometimes after urination etc.. impure things but you just wash the private parts and perform wudhu. 

madi – thick sticky fluid – comes out sometimes when carrying heavy things and sometimes after performing wudu this sometimes come out.. impure things but you just wash the private parts and perform wudhu. 

 6. Urine of a baby boy who does not eat food out of desire: if fell down on clothes, just sprinkle that part is enough. In case of a boy who eat food with desire, full wash of that part is required. This rule does not include infant girl – it has to be washed in case of infant girl. 

7. Removing the physical impurity: if blood fells down on clothes, by washing its presence, hard part is removed, still some shade is on the cloth, it becomes clean and pure. 

Extra notes:  

Urine of animals: Urine & feces of animals which we are allowed to eat is pure e.g.: urine of sheep, goat, chicken, etc Daleel:  Narrated By Anas : “Prior to the construction of the mosque, the Prophet offered the prayers at sheep-folds.” (Bukhaaree 1/4/235| Muslim| Tirimidhee) 

Urine of animals which we are disallowed to eat is impure .  

Urine of humans is impure, but urine of a baby boy who has not eaten food is pure. 

Urine of animals which we are disallowed to eat is impure.

 Source: Taken from Course-Lecture2: by Shaikh Saad ibn Naasir Al Shithry, a former member of the Senior Scholars’ Council and the Vice-President of KIU based on the book ’Manhaj As Salikin’ (The Methodology of the Traveller and a Clarification of Fiqh of  the Religion) by  Shaikh Abdur -Rahman As-Sa’di. 

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