The most confirmed of these is the Prayer of Kusuf (solar eclipse) as the Prophet (s) prayed this and requested others to do so.
The Hanbali ulama viewed this( salah kusuf )as mustahab, recommended.
Other ulama opinion viewed this as fard kifayah – if a group of people from the community offer this salah, the obligation is lifted from the rest.
How to perform this:
 This Salah is prayed according to the description given in the Hadith of A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) where she stated that: “The Prophet (s) read aloud in the solar-eclipse prayer. He prayed four Rak’ahs in two (units of prayer) and with four prostrations.” [Agreed Upon]
Imam Abu Haneefa’s view is that it should be observed exactly same as salatul fajr.
According to majority, it is to perform 2 raka’hs, in each rakah there is 2 bowings (rukus). Start first rakah, after recitation of surah fatiha and a surah, you go for ruku , then when you stand up after ruku and instead of going sujood recite fatiha & Surah again and then go again ruku, then stand up & then go for sujood. Same to be repeated in second rakaah.
Recitation aloud in solar eclipse salah is allowed.
The Witr Prayer
 The Witr Salah is a Stressed Sunnah – Sunnah mu’akkadah (a confirmed Sunnah). the Prophet (s) maintained the performance of this whether he was a resident or traveller and encouraged the people to pray it.
 the least number of Rak’ahs for this prayer is a single Rak’ah and the
 most is eleven.
 The time that Witr should be prayed is from the time of ‘Isha’ until the time for Fajr.
 It is preferable that this be the final Salah of the day as the Prophet (s) said: “Make your final Salah of the night Witr.” [Agreed Upon] Also, the Prophet (s) said
: “If anyone is afraid that he may not get up in the latter part of the night, he should observe Witr in the first part of it; and if anyone is eager to get up in the last part of it, he should observe Witr at the end of the night, for prh]
- Salatul Witr – Sunnah mu’akkadah (a confirmed Sunnah). – according to majority of scholars. In case you missed it, you can make it up in the morning (shaf’an) – it should be done in an even number, not as odd number rakaahs if you are making it up in the next day.
- Imam Abu haneefa’s (rahimahullah) opinion is that Salatul Witr is wajib.
The ‘Rain Prayer’ (Salaatul Istisqaa’)
 The Istisqaa’ Salah is also Sunnah when people are in despair due to lack of rainfall and  is prayed like the ‘Eid Salaah outdoors (open area). It is performed same as Eid prayer There is 1st rakaat – 6 extra takbers, (total 7 takbeers including opening takbir) then in 2nd rakaah, there are 5 takbeers (excluding the Takbeer that he says when rising from prostration.)
In the first rak’ah he should say Takbeerat al-ihraam (say “Allaahu akbar” to start the prayer), after which he should say six more takbeers, because of the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), “The takbeer of al-Fitr and al-Adha is seven takbeers in the first rak’ah and five takbeers in the second, apart from the takbeer of rukoo’.” Narrated by Abu Dawood and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 639.
 It consists of two-Rak’ah, followed thereafter by
 a single Khutbah (sermon), during which forgiveness is sought in abundance along with the recitation of Qur’aanic verses that command towards seeking forgiveness, and a prolonged supplication. Some imams are of the opinion that its one khutbah, others say 2 khutbas that is performed after this salah
 One should not act in haste with regards to this dua being answered.
 It is incumbent before going out to offer this Salaah to perform that which guards against evil and invites mercy such as:
1. seeking the forgiveness of Allah,
3. giving up oppression, (giving people their rights)
4. benevolence to others, (being good to people)
5. and other acts which Allah has made a means of earning His mercy and (a means for) protection against calamity.
- · This salah has no association with what the meteorologist and is not done based on what they say.
The times in which it is prohibited to pray
 The times at which any superogatory prayers are forbidden are:
 from Fajr until the sun has risen in the sky to the height of a spear; (no salah except for the 2 sunnah for fajr and Salatul fajr.
 from the ‘Asr prayer until the Maghrib prayer (Sun sets), and from
 when the sun is at its zenith until it moves off from there.
And Allah knows best.
What prayers are allowed to obeserve/not allowed during the prohibited times:
- · Not allowed to observe the general voluntary salah.
- · Allowed to pray those salaah that has specific reason attached to them eg: tahiyatul masjid
Congregational Prayer and the Imam
 The performance of the five daily prayers in congregation is an
individual obligation upon men, whether resident or travelling.
Allah says in Qurán ‘ Bow down in rukoo with those bowing down’.
 The smallest congregation consists of an Imam and a follower,
 and the larger the congregation, the more beloved it is to Allah.
 The Prophet (s) said: “The congregational prayer is twenty seven times better than the prayer of a person prayed individually”[Agreed Upon]
If a person performs a salaah himself and hten he finds a congregation observed then it is recommended (Mustahabb) for him to join that particular jam’’aah.
From the outset, the follower of the imam is expected to follow whatever the imam does, one should copy and imitate the imam immediately when imam performs that action.
The Prophet (s) also said: “The one who is most versed in the Book of Allaah should lead the group in prayer, but If they (i.e., two men) are equally versed in reciting it, then the one who is most knowledgeable regarding Sunnah (should lead), and if they are equal regarding the Sunnah, then the earliest one to emigrate; if they emigrated at the same time, then the earliest one to embrace Islam. No man must lead another in prayer where (the latter) has authority, or sit in his place of honour in his house, without his permission.” [Muslim]
E.g.: If congregation is performed in the house then the owner of the house have more right and have precedence in leading the prayer.
 It is incumbent,
 that the Imam be at the front and, (in case of women congregation, the woman imam should stand in the same row but it in the middle of the same front row.)
 the followers stand close to one another (in each row), and that,
 the rows are completed one by one. It is recommended for them not to leave gaps.
 Whoever prays a Rak’ah alone behind a row, without an excuse, should repeat his Salaah. There is hadith where Prophet Muhammad said “There is no salaah for any individual behind a row” Imam Ahmad had view that salaah rendered by himself behind a complete row his salaah is not accepted. But majority of scholars they are of the view his salaah is sahih and accepted but his reward is less than those in rendered in the row . The correct view and preferred view is the first view as it coincides with evidence.
The sheikh said that the most important aspects we should bear in mind is that we should state in contentment and humility while visiting the masjid.
 The Prophet (s) said: “When you hear the Iqaamah (immediate call to prayer), proceed to offer the prayer with calmness and solemnity and do not make haste. And pray whatever you are able to pray (with the Imam) and complete whatever you have missed.” [Agreed Upon]
 And also, as stated in At-Tirmidhi: “If any of you approaches the prayer and finds the Imam in a certain position, then he should perform whatever the Imam is performing”
Source: Taken from Course-Lecture5: by Shaikh Saad ibn Naasir Al Shithry, a former member of the Senior Scholars’ Council of Saudia Arabia and the Vice-President of KIU based on the book ’Manhaj As Salikin’ (The Methodology of the Traveller and a Clarification of Fiqh of the Religion) by Shaikh Abdur -Rahman As-Sa’di.