Chapter: The Salaah of the ‘Excused’
 A sick person is excused from attending the congregational Prayer, shorten prayer, leave fasting on conditions.
Three situations in which the sick is excused:
a) If the person carries out the worship and that practise will increase the pain or sickness.
b) It will delay the cure for your pain or sickness.
c) If he feels the pain the carry out the while doing that act of Ibaadah.
 Also, if standing in prayer will increase one’s sickness, then he may pray sitting, and if he is unable to, then he should pray on his side; The Prophet (s) said to ‘Imraan ibn Husayn: “Pray standing, and if you are unable, then seated, and if you unable, then on your side.”
 If it is difficult for him (to pray each prayer at its prescribed time), then he may combine eg: Dhuhr and ‘Asr at the time of either one of them.
 Likewise, combining these prayers is permissible for the traveller, and it is  recommended (Sunnah) for him to shorten the four Rak’ah prayers to two Rak’ahs.
To be considered as a traveller, the below factors are taken into consideration:
– Traveller denotes a person who moves from place to place.
– This also includes a person who is staying in a particular place temporarily for 1 or 2 or 3 days. (If he stays more than 4 days in one place, according to majority of Ulama, he is not considered as a traveller).
– a) If a person know he will be at his destination for more than 4 days- he should complete the prayer.
-b) If he does not know how long he will be there, then he shortens for as long as he is there…
These rulings (a) & (b) are attained through reconcilling between all the ahaadeeth that deal with the rulings of the traveller.
And Allah knows best.
– Also considered as a traveller who lives in a place but travels daily to neighbouring cities.
The ‘Fear’ Prayer –
The normal Salaah that are performed during the state of fear comes under Fear Prayer. E.g.:- fears of attack of an enemy , fears of animal that attack etc. Our Shariah takes pride that in ensuring our salaah is capable of having contentment, humility and direct concentration.
1)Eg: You are in vehicle and a thief chase you (Car chase), and Salaah time comes in, in this situation you can perform your salaah as fear prayer is performed. You can render salaah as you can, you practice you rukoo or sujood or gesture in a way that is easy for you.
2)Eg: When you are in plane, and the crew does not give you place to perform you salaah and time of salaah will expire before arrival, then one is allowed to render salaah in his/her seat and perform as you are able to.
 It is permissible to perform the ‘fear’prayer in every manner practiced by the Prophet (s). One such way is based on,
 the Hadith of Saalih ibn Khawwaat (may Allah be pleased with him) regarding those who prayed with the Prophet (s) on the day of Thaat ar-riqaa’: it was narrated that a group prayed with him (s) and a group faced the enemy, so he (s) prayed one Rak’ah with those with him, then remained standing while they (the group) completed their prayer), then this group left and lined up to face the enemy. Then, the other group (that faced the enemy) came and the Prophet (s) prayed with them the remaining Ra’kah, then he (s) remained seated whilst they completed their Salaah, and then he (s) led them in doing the Tasleem. [Agreed Upon]
 In cases of extreme fear, the prayer should be offered whilst standing or riding, regardless of whether the Qiblah is being faced or not, bowing and prostrating to the best of one’s ability.
 Similarly, every person in a the state of fear, should pray in a manner fitting to his situation and do whatever is necessary with regards to escaping and the like.
The Prophet (s) said: “When I order you to do something, do it to the best of your ability.” [Agreed Upon]
Chapter: The Jumu’ah (Friday) Salaah
 Attending the Friday prayer is an individual obligation upon every Muslim who is required to observe the salaah in congregation.
 From among the pre-conditions of this Salaah is that
[i] it is done at its prescribed time,
[ii] it be performed in a town (or city), and that
[iii] it be preceded by two Khutbahs (sermons).
 It is recommended that the person giving the Khutbah stand on a Minbar (pulpit),
 and when he ascends and faces the congregation to give them ‘Salaam’ and then sit,
 after which the Adhaan (call to prayer) is given.
 He should then stand and deliver the first Khutbah (sermon),
 then sit.
 After this, he should deliver the second Khutbah.
 Then the Salaah should begin and he should,
 lead them in praying two Rak’ahs.
 He should recite loudly in them and
 pray in the first Rak’ah, Surat al-A’la and in the second, Surat al-Ghashiyah, or al-Jumu’ah (in the first) and al-Munafiqun (in the second).
 Also recommended for he who is to attend the Jumu’ah Salaah is to bathe,  to perfume himself,  to wear his finest clothing, and  to set off early.
1) It is compulsory the person to be in the masjid before the khateeb stands up in the minbar. Why? Because – Allah’s command in surah Jum’ah. “O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed for the Jumuah (prayer) on Friday (Jumu’ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allâh [Jumu’ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salât (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing), That is better for you if you did but know! (62:9)”
2) Time of rendering Salaah of Jumuah: There are differences in opinion:
a) Hanabila view is that the Khutbah and Salaah is allowed to be rendered before zawal time (sun at its zenith= zawal).
b) malikiyah view is that the Khutbah can be before zawal time but salaah should be after zawaal.
c) The majority of the opinion that the Khutbah and Salaah should be only after zawaal.
If you look at the opinions, Hanabila view is close but it is better it to be done after zawaal (C) as we can come out of all differences of opinions.
3) If one does not catches up atleast one rakah with Imam then he is not considered as one who caught
4) It is recommended for khateeb not to prolong the khutbah. The shorter the khutbah the closer it is close to sunnah.
5) khutbah should not be prolonged till asr time, whoever does this is a mistake. Then salaatul jumaah in this circumstance is not acceptable and they should perform salaatul dhuhr.
6) The sheikh advises those who perform khutbah and salaah, to set a fixed time for beginning of khutbah and fixed time for beginning of the salaatul jumuah prayer to ease people who have to go for work and ask permission etc., by doing this we are lifting up community from lot of difficulties.
Chapter: The Salah of the Two ‘Eids
Regarding the ruling of the salaatul Eid the Ulamas have differed:
1) Hanafiya – Eid is waajib
2) Someof the Ulamas is it is Sunnah
3) Shaikh Sa’d opinion – Fard Khifayah – communal obligation.
Difference of opinion among Ulamaas regarding khutbah of eid : – starting with takbeer or alhumd (praising Allah) , Shaikh view is that it is but better to start with praise of Allah (alhumd) but both are fine.
The difference between Salatul Eid Al Adha and Salatul Eid Al Fitr,
1) It is better salatul Eid Adha to be rendered early and Al Fitr delayed.
2) It is recommended to eat before Fitr and not to eat anything from adha (eat from sacrifice)
3) Khubtha for Salaatul Eid Al Fitr should be regarding those ruling pertaining to fasting and rulings of sadaqatul fitr, In Khutbah for Salatul Eid Al Adha – Khutbah can be of anything suitable for that particular day.
From point of discussion are the takbeer
It is recommended to raise voice and announce the takbeer but not in communal remembrance or in a gathering or in congregation.
The days of Dhul Hijjah are from the benevolent seasons of worship, it’s similar to last 10 days of ramadhan.
 Recommended acts
[i] The Mutlaq (general) Takbeer is recommended on the eve of ‘Eid as
well as throughout the first ten days of the month of Dhu’l Hijjah.
[ii] The Muqayyad (restricted) Takbeer is to be recited immediately after the obligatory prayers starting from the Fajr Salaah on the day of ‘Arafat until the ‘Asr Salaah on the last of Tashreeq.
The description of these two is that they are said as follows:
“Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Laa ilaaha illallaah; Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, wa lilaahi’l Hamd.”
Source: Taken from Course-Lecture6: by Shaikh Saad ibn Naasir Al Shithry, a former member of the Senior Scholars’ Council of Saudia Arabia and the Vice-President of KIU based on the book ’Manhaj As Salikin’ (The Methodology of the Traveller and a Clarification of Fiqh of the Religion) by Shaikh Abdur -Rahman As-Sa’di.