The Book of Zakaah


As of all us know that Zakaah is one of the pillar of Islam.

Allah says in Quran:

خُذۡ مِنۡ أَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ صَدَقَةً۬ تُطَهِّرُهُمۡ وَتُزَكِّيہِم بِہَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيۡهِمۡ‌ۖ إِنَّ صَلَوٰتَكَ سَكَنٌ۬ لَّهُمۡ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

“Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it, and invoke Allâh for them. Verily! Your invocations are a source of security for them, and Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.”     [ 9:103]

Zakaah means to purify, purify one’s wealth and purify one self, purify his wealth which in turn helps himself from being miser, stingy etc. 

وَمَآ ءَاتَيۡتُم مِّن رِّبً۬ا لِّيَرۡبُوَاْ فِىٓ أَمۡوَٲلِ ٱلنَّاسِ فَلَا يَرۡبُواْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ وَمَآ ءَاتَيۡتُم مِّن زَكَوٰةٍ۬ تُرِيدُونَ وَجۡهَ ٱللَّهِ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُضۡعِفُونَ

And that which you give in gift (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other people’s property, has no increase with Allâh, but that which you give in Zakât seeking Allâh’s Countenance then those, they shall have manifold increase.” [“30:39]

Allah teaches us paying out of Zakah is an increment for one self, it is an investment, and it actually is a turn over for the assets we have.

[201] This is obligatory upon [1] every Muslim who is [2] free and [3] possesses the Nisaab (minimal amount that if possessed; makes Zakaah compulsory).

 [211] Zakaah is not obligatory upon one’s wealth, until a full lunar. We find in the hadith that there is no zakaah in wealth until a full lunar is completed. Hadith –“there is no zakat in wealth until one lunar year is completed” – (Abu Dawood -1573-)

With two exception of the above rule:

[1] – Anything that is harvested from earth, crops, treasure that is taken out earth, the one have to pay Zakaah as soon as you extract it or harvest it.  (What comes out of the ground (i.e. agricultural produce)).

 [2] – Whatever is produced/earned from one’s original assets such as the offspring of livestock and profits from trade. This is because it’s ‘hawl’ (complete lunar year) is calculated based on the timeline of one’s original assets, if it had reached the minimal amount (nisaab).

The Zakaah on profit have to pay when your original assets are one year.

To make it more clear, additional notes from Shaikh  Sajid:

From the outset Zakaah is not compulsory on your wealth until a complete lunar year is completed whilst that wealth is in your possession.

However there are two exceptions to the general rule:

1. That which is harvested/extracted from the ground. This should be paid out upon extraction.

2. Whatever is produced/earned from one’s original assets.

One’s original assets refers to:
the possessed amount that made you liable to pay zakaah if you continued to possess at least that amount or a higher amount throughout the year until the end of your ‘zakaah financial year’

‘Zakah financial year’ refers to the following scenario:

If you possessed the minimal amount that constituted you being liable to pay zakaah (nisaab) on January 1st 2009. If all condition are met;zakaah would be due on January 1st 2010. Thus the end of your ‘zakaah financial year’ would be January 1st each year.
Thus:

If the nisaab was 1000 riyals and you acquired 1000 riyals on January 1st 2009, and then during March that year you turned that 1000.00 into 3000.00, and in August that year, you turned that 3000 into 10000.00 and on December 31st you ended up with 20 000.00.

On the 1st of January 2010, you will have to pay zakaah on 20 000.00.

We do not say you pay Zakaah on 1000.00 on the 1st of Jan 2010, then pay Zakaah on 3000.00 in March 2010 etc.

This is because all monies earned after you amassed the nissab is considered a result of your initial amount/original capital, and thus follows the same timeline.

In the same breath-continuing with our previous example: If you happened to lose 10 000.00 riyals before the end of the 31st of December 2009, after possessing 20 000.00 earlier, you would only be liable to pay Zakaah on

And Allah knows best

In regards, to physical wealth and merchandise, we need to understand that the lunar year calculation is not disrupted by the turnover of this particular wealth.

Zakaah is not applicable except in the following four cases (where zakaah is compulsory)  and also there is a nisaab for each case. Nisaab: Nisaab is a minimum amount for zakah to be liable and compulsory, each category have its own minimum amount.

i.  Zakaat Baheemah al-An’aam (Zakaah on an’aam animals) -The Sa’imah – which refers to those animals that eat by themselves.  Cows,camels,sheeps. As far as those animals which you have to feed there is no zakaah on them.

–      Minimum amount ( zakaah to be compulsory) for sheep is forty sheep.

–      Minimum amount for camel is five.

–      Minimum amount for cow is thirty cows. 

Thus if someone has 5 freely grazing camels, then zakaah is waajib upon him when his/her     ‘zakaah financial year’ is up. And if someone has 30 freely grazing cows, then zakaah is waajib upon him at the end of the ‘zakaah financial year’.

 2.  What comes out of the ground  –  Those things are harvested  which can be  weighed and stored, those cannot be stored and weighed you don’t pay Zakah. Stored means stored without preservatives or chemicals.  Minimum amount for zakaah to be due (Nisaab) is At least  six hundred and a bit Kilograms.

 3. Treasures – means Gold and silver and those that can take the place of Gold and Silver eg: cash/money .

The Nisaab of Gold is 20 Dinaar’s (85 grams of gold)
The Nisaab of Silver is 200 Dirhams (595 grams of silver)

 The minimal value for Zakaah changes every year depending on the price of Gold in the country that you are in.

If at the end of your Zakaah financial year, you have less than the nisaab, then you do not have to pay zakaah even if you had the minimal amount before your financial year was completed.

Zakaah on an employee’s salary

I am an employee with a monthly salary of 2000 Saudi riyals. My family are all dependent on me and I pay all their expenses from my salary. I have a wife, daughter, father and brothers and sisters on whom I spend.

But my question is, how can I pay the zakaah on my wealth when my only source of income is this salary, and all of my salary is spent on my family? So when should I pay may zakaah? Some people say that a salary is like agricultural crops, and one should not wait until one full year has passed before paying it. So when does zakaah become obligatory upon my salary?

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.
If a person has a monthly salary and he spends all of it and has nothing left, so that at the end of the month he has spent all his money, then he does not have to pay zakaah, because for zakaah to be obligatory, one full year must have passed (i.e., one full year from the date of his taking possession of the nisaab, the minimum amount of wealth on which zakaah is due). On this basis, you do not have to pay zakaah, unless you save some of your wealth and that amount reaches the nisaab (threshold or minimum amount), and one year has passed.

With regard to the person who told you that the zakaah on a salary is like the zakaah on agricultural crops and you do not have to wait until one full year has passed before paying it, what he said is not correct.

As most people work for a salary, we think that it is a good idea to describe how zakaah is to be paid on salaries.

Zakaah on the salary of an employee:

The employee with a salary will find himself in one of the following two situations:

1 – Either he spends all of it and does not save anything, in which case he is not obliged to pay zakaah, as in the case of the person who asked this question;

2 – Or he will save some of it, sometimes more and sometimes less. So how is zakaah to be reckoned in this case?

The answer is: if he insists on having all his rights and on not giving any charity to those who deserve it apart from what he is obliged to give, then he should make a schedule of his earnings and write down every amount and the date on which he took possession of it. Then he should pay zakaah for each amount separately when one year has passed from the date on which he took possession of it.

But if he wants an easier method, and wants to be more generous and give precedence to the poor and others who are entitled to zakaah over himself, then he can pay zakaah on all the money he possesses when one year has passed from the date when his wealth first reached the nisaab. This will bring a greater reward and raise him higher in status; it is easier for him and is more generous towards the poor and needy and others who are entitled to zakaah. Whatever extra amount he may pay will be regarded as a “down payment” on the zakaah for any wealth for which one year has not yet passed.

(From Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 9/280).

For example: a man takes his salary for Muharram, and saves one thousand riyals of it. Then he does likewise in Safar and the remaining months. When Muharram comes in the following year, he looks at all that he has and pays zakaah based on that.

And Allaah knows best.

Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/26113/salary

 4. Zakaah ‘urood al-tijaarah (Zakaah on trade goods) -Merchandise– Refers to those goods  for which you have an intention to sell, even if you display them or you don’t display them.  As long as you intent to sell, Zakah is compulsory on it.

Minimum amount for zakaah to be due is same as Nisaab for gold and silver.

 

Zakaah on the CAMEL

 i.    Camels – 24 or less – sheep are to be paid as zakaah.

ii.    For every 5 camels (Minimum Nisab level) – 1 sheep is to be paid.

iii.    25 to 35 camelsa 1yr old she-camel (Binth Makhad) is paid,  in the absence if 1 yr old she camel, then a 2yr old male camel (ibn Laboon) is to be paid.

iv.    36 to 45 camelsa 2yr old she-camel (binth Laboon)

 v.    46 to 60 camelsa 3yr old one she-camel  fit for breeding(hiqqah) is to be paid. Whoever owes in Zakah a three-year old she-camel but does not     possess it, but instead has a four-year old, that would  be accepted from him and in in return, the Zakah collector should give him twenty Dirhams or two sheep.”

 vi.    61 to 75 camelsa 4yr old she-camel whose udders have formed (Jaza’ah) to be paid. Whoever has to pay in Zakah a four-year old she-camel but does not possess one, and instead has a three-year old she- camel; then that would be acceptable, but he should add to that two sheep if he is able, and if not, he should add twenty Dirhams.

vii.    76 to 90 camels –  two binth laboons to be paid ( two  2year old she-camels)

 viii.    91 to 120 camelstwo hiqqas to be paid (two 3yr old camels – fit for breeding are to be paid)

ix.    More than 120 camelsfor every 40 (over 120) – a 2yr old she-camel – binth laboon to be paid.

x.    More than 120 camels – for every 50 (over 120) – a 3yr old she-camel fit for breeding = hiqqah to  be paid.

xi.    Have only 4 camels0 -does not have to pay zakaah (unless he wishes to do so)

This is based on the Hadith of Anas (may Allah be pleased with him), where Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote to him, saying: This concerns the obligation of Zakah which the Messenger of Allah, (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) made obligatory for the Muslims and which Allah commanded His Messenger with: …For twenty-four camels or less , sheep are to be paid as Zakaah; for every five camels one sheep is to be paid.. And if there are between twenty-five to thirty-five camels, one ‘Bint Makhad ( a one year old she-camel) is to be paid or, in the absence of a one year old she-camel, a ‘ibn Laboon’ ( a two year old male-camel). From thirtysix to forty-five, one ‘bint laboon’ (a two year old she-camel) is to be paid. From forty-six to sixty, one ‘hiqqah’ is to be paid ( a three-year old she-camel fit for breeding). From sixty-one to seventy-five, one ‘Jaza’ah’ is to be paid ( a four-year old she-camel whose udders haveformed). From seventy-six to ninety (camels), two ‘bint laboons’ ( two-year old she-camels) are to be paid. From ninety-one to one hundred and twenty (camels), two ‘hiqqahs’ ( three-year old shecamels fit for breeding) are to be paid. If there are more than onehundred and twenty (camels), for every forty (over 120), one ‘bint laboon’ is to be paid, and for every fifty camels (over 120) one ‘hiqqah’ is to be paid, and whoever has only four camels, does not have to pay any Zakaah unless he wishes to.”

 Zakaah on sheep

     i.        40 – 120 = 1 sheep to be given as Zakaah.

    ii.        121 – 200 = 2 sheeps to be given as Zakaah.

   iii.        201-300 = 3 sheeps to be given as Zakaah.

  iv.        More than 300 = Every hundred above this (300) , another sheep must be paid.

   v.        Less than 40  = No Zakaah need to be paid unless the owner wishes.

 It is not permissible for one to combine different groups, nor divide flocks of one type, to avoid paying Zakaah on them. 

If the animals are co-owned, then the owners should pay the Zakaah collectively.

 It is not permissible to pay in Zakaah an animal that has reached old age or is defective.

 Zakaah on Cows

[214] And in the Hadith of Mu’aadh (may Allah be pleased with him) it states that: “The Prophet (r) commanded him to take from every thirty cows a one-year old calf, male or female, and from every forty (cows)a two-year old she-calf.” [Ahl As-Sunan]

Source:  Notes taken from Course-Lecture8: by Shaikh Saad ibn Naasir Al Shithry, a former member of the Senior Scholars’ Council of Saudia Arabia and the Vice-President of KIU based on the book ’Manhaj As Salikin’ (The methodology of the Traveller and a Clarification of Fiqh of  the Religion) by  Shaikh Abdur -Rahman As-Sa’di.

4 thoughts on “The Book of Zakaah

  1. Assalamu alaykum brother,

    The owner has to pay the zakaah right? So if a woman has gold through dowry (mahr), she has to pay zakaah on it right? It will be obligatory on her if she earns or if she has sufficient money. But if she doesn’t earn, then will it be obligatory on the husband to pay or will it be just mustahabb?

    JazakAllah khayr.

    • Wa alaykum salaam wa rahmatullahi wa brakatuhu sister,

      Jazak Allah Khair for asking question, it just makes me learn more.

      All praises due to Allah alone.

      If the jewelry is set to be used for the purpose of renting, spending in case of need, saving or is meant for anyother those of using and lending) then it is subject to the original ruling of giving zakaah and zakaah is to be observed in it if it meets the conditions of nisaab and time line.

      If the Mahar is used only for adornment then the Scholars have differed over the view that whether zakaah needs to be paid for the one which is used for adornment and not for sale (or,renting,spending in case of need, saving or is meant for anyother those of using and lending).

      If you are in view that the zakaah should be paid for gold which are used for adornment only then it is obligatory to pay zakaah on it.

      I am with this opinion that If a person owns wealth that reaches the nisaab (minimum threshold) and one full year has passed, he/she must pay zakaah on it, whether this wealth is cash, gold or silver, from the mahr (dowry) or anything else, whether he/she is saving it for a trip or to build a house or any other purpose.

      Obligation – The zakaah must be paid by the owner of the jewellery, not by the husband.
      Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Zakaah must be paid by the owner of the jewellery. If it is paid by her husband or someone else on her behalf and with her permission, there is nothing wrong with that. The zakaah need not be paid from the jewellery itself, rather it is sufficient ti give the equivalent value each time one year passes, according to the value of gold and silver in the market when the year has passed. Fataawa Islamiyyah, 2/85

      The above indicates that the obligation is on the owner and the amount can paid from the jewellery or from cash savings etc..

      If the case is as mentioned, then It is never an obligation on your husband to pay zakaah ( as he is not the owner of the mahr- mahr is the right of the wife and ownership is hence yours) nor it is mustahabb for him, but in case if he is ready and volunteer to pay then it is allowed, but you (wife) must be informed before paying it. But just note that the reward for zakaah will be taken by your husband and the obligation on you to pay zakaah will be lifted up. So if you want to get the reward for zakaah it is best for you to pay out from the gold you posses (if you dont have any other source of wealth). In short, if you look at the materialistic aspect – you are gaining the gold, but spiritually you are loosing the reward if your husband pays it off on your behalf.

      And Allah knows Best.

      Akh Ibn Ali.
      Sources referred: a) A summary of Islamic Jurisprudence – Dr. Salih Al Fawzan , b) Checked with Dr. Bilal Philips, c) Checked and confirmed with Bro Imran Abu Moosa, Khateeb of our jumuah Masjid, d) http://www.islam-qa.com

  2. Assalamualaikum
    I am still a little confuse about Zakat. My confusions are as bellows:
    If I have 100 grams of gold jewelry—should I pay Zakat for entire 100 grams or should I keep 87 grams for me and pay zakat for rest 13 grams?
    If I don’t use any of my gold jewelry and keep those in a safety box–do I have to pay zakat on that savings gold?
    I will appreciate if anybody can answer me clearly.
    Sincerely

    • Wa alaykum salaam wa rahmatullahi wa brakatuhu sis,

      1) If you have 100 grams of gold and you possess it for a lunar year then you have to pay Zakaah 2.5% of the value of 100 gms of Gold.

      2) Regarding the gold you kept in your safe box:
      a) If what you meant by savings is that you kept only for adornment then the Scholars have differed over the view that whether zakaah needs to be paid for the one which is used for adornment and not for sale. If you are with the view that the zakaah should be paid for gold which are used for adornment then it is obligatory to pay zakaah on it. I am with this opinion that If a person owns wealth that reaches the nisaab (minimum threshold) and one full year has passed, he/she must pay zakaah on it, whether this wealth is cash, gold or silver, or anything else, whether he/she is saving it for a trip or to build a house or any other purpose even adornment.

      b) If what you meant by savings is that you intend to sell in future then yes you have to pay Zakaah on it.

      Allah knows Best.

      WA salaam
      Akh Ibn Ali

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