Fiqh literally means to understand. In concept of Islamic Science , fiqh referes to comprehension of the subsidaiary Sharia rulings along with specifice evidences the substitance it. The evidences can be from Quran, Sunnah,Ijmah consensus of Scholars, valid forms of analogy deduction.
The Five Categories of Shari’ah Ruling – Ahkam As Shariah. With regards to each and every act, one of the following five Shari’ah rulings apply:
1- Waajib: This is where the doer is rewarded and the one who does not do it is punished. It is a binding on us, The Law Giver commands to do it eg: salah, zakah
2- Haraam is its converse. This is where the doer is punished and the one who does not do it is rewarded. The Law Giver commands you to stay away from it. eg: Zina.
3- Makrooh (DISLIKED) is where the one who forsakes the act is rewarded, whereas the one who does so is not punished. the Law Giver request you to avoid from doing something, there is no binding on the mukallif eg: eating unpleasant food
4- Masnoon , mandoob(or Sunnah) is its converse. – The Law Giver request you to do and one who perform it is rewarded and the one who foresake it is not punished. eg: sunnah prayers
5- Mubaah is where to do or to forsake the act is the same. eg: in general sleeping it is permissible.
The above Shariah Rulings are also known as -Ahkam At Taklifiyah – defining laws- Taklif means when the communciation is made in the form of demand or option.
Ahkam Al Wadhiya (secondary or declaratory laws)
1) Shart – conditon or shuroot(plural)
Something that has to exist before the invoking of the related action or item. Eg: wudhu/purity is a condition for salah, sun cross zenith for pray dhuhr is hukm al wadhi. If condition is absent then ruling is absent, condition is present,it does not necessarily mean ruling is present.
2) Maán’iy – Hindrance or prevention– if maaníy is present ,the ruling is absent. For eg: Salah is wajib for women, but when during mensturation, women are not allowed to pray. So when mensus is present, wajib of salah is absent.
3) Sahih – Correct/Valid – eg: rendered salah with wudhu.. if your salah was done with all shart and no maniy we say salah is valid. For Sahih – shart should be present and maaniy should be absent.
4) Fasit – Incorrect or Null= eg: rendered salah with mensus or did salah without wudhu.
Obligation of Seeking Islamic knowledge is:
1) Fard Ayn – wajib upon every individual to seek the knowledge pretaining to him/her eg: how to perform salaah, fasting etc.. If they dont seek it, they are sinful.
2) Fard Khifayah – Communal Obligation – A community has ulamas who have comprehensive knowledge on the other areas of Shariah and in this case the obligation is lifted among others.
And Allah Knows Best.
Source: Taken from Course-Lecture1: by Shaikh Saad ibn Naasir Al Shithry, a former member of the Senior Scholars’ Council and the Vice-President of KIU based on the book ‘Manhaj As Salikin’ (The Methodology of the Traveller and a Clarification of Fiqh of the Religion) by Shaikh Abdur -Rahman As-Sa’di.