The Salaah of the ‘Excused’, Salaatul Jumuah, Salaatul Eid

Chapter: The Salaah of the ‘Excused’

[152] A sick person is excused from attending the congregational Prayer, shorten prayer, leave fasting on conditions.

 Three situations in which the sick is excused:

a)   If the person carries out the worship and that practise will increase the pain or sickness.

     b)   It will delay the cure for your pain or sickness.

    c)    If he feels the pain the carry out the while doing that act of Ibaadah.

 [153] Also, if standing in prayer will increase one’s sickness, then he may pray sitting, and if he is unable to, then he should pray on his side; The Prophet (s) said to ‘Imraan ibn Husayn: “Pray standing, and if you are unable, then seated, and if you unable, then on your side.”

[154] If it is difficult for him (to pray each prayer at its prescribed time), then he may combine eg: Dhuhr and ‘Asr at the time of either one of them.

 [155] Likewise, combining these prayers is permissible for the traveller, and it is [156] recommended (Sunnah) for him to shorten the four Rak’ah prayers to two Rak’ahs.  

To be considered as a traveller, the below factors are taken into consideration:

– Traveller denotes a person who moves from place to place.

– This also includes a person who is staying in a particular place temporarily for 1 or 2 or 3 days. (If he stays more than 4 days in one place, according to majority of Ulama, he is not considered as a traveller). 

– a) If a person know he will be at his destination for more than 4 days- he should complete the prayer.

-b) If he does not know how long he will be there, then he shortens for as long as he is there…

These rulings (a) & (b) are attained through  reconcilling between all the ahaadeeth that deal with the rulings of the traveller.

And Allah knows best.

– Also considered as a traveller who lives in a place but travels daily to neighbouring cities.

The ‘Fear’ Prayer –

The normal Salaah that are performed during the state of fear comes under Fear Prayer. E.g.:- fears of attack of an enemy , fears of animal that attack etc. Our Shariah takes pride that in ensuring our salaah is capable of having contentment, humility and direct concentration.

 1)Eg: You are in vehicle and a thief chase you (Car chase), and Salaah time comes in, in this situation you can perform your salaah as fear prayer is performed. You can render salaah as you can, you practice you rukoo or sujood or gesture in a way that is easy for you.

 2)Eg: When you are in plane, and the crew does not give you place to perform you salaah and time of salaah will expire before arrival, then one is allowed to render salaah in his/her seat and perform as you are able to.

[158] It is permissible to perform the ‘fear’prayer in every manner practiced by the Prophet (s). One such way is based on,

[159] the Hadith of Saalih ibn Khawwaat (may Allah be pleased with him) regarding those who prayed with the Prophet (s) on the day of Thaat ar-riqaa’: it was narrated that a group prayed with him (s) and a group faced the enemy, so he (s) prayed one Rak’ah with those with him, then remained standing while they (the group) completed their prayer), then this group left and lined up to face the enemy. Then, the other group (that faced the enemy) came and the Prophet (s) prayed with them the remaining Ra’kah, then he (s) remained seated whilst they completed their Salaah, and then he (s) led them in doing the Tasleem. [Agreed Upon]

 [160] In cases of extreme fear, the prayer should be offered whilst standing or riding, regardless of whether the Qiblah is being faced or not, bowing and prostrating to the best of one’s ability.

[161] Similarly, every person in a the state of fear, should pray in a manner fitting to his situation and do whatever is necessary with regards to escaping and the like.  

The Prophet (s) said: “When I order you to do something, do it to the best of your ability.” [Agreed Upon]

 Chapter: The Jumu’ah (Friday) Salaah

[162] Attending the Friday prayer is an individual obligation upon every Muslim who is required to observe the salaah in congregation.

[163] From among the pre-conditions of this Salaah is that

[i] it is done at its prescribed time,

[ii] it be performed in a town (or city), and that

[iii] it be preceded by two Khutbahs (sermons).

[165] It is recommended that the person giving the Khutbah stand on a Minbar (pulpit),

[166] and when he ascends and faces the congregation to give them ‘Salaam’ and then sit,

[167] after which the Adhaan (call to prayer) is given.

[168] He should then stand and deliver the first Khutbah (sermon),

[169] then sit.

[170] After this, he should deliver the second Khutbah.

[171] Then the Salaah should begin and he should,

[172] lead them in praying two Rak’ahs.

[173] He should recite loudly in them and

[174] pray in the first Rak’ah, Surat al-A’la and in the second, Surat al-Ghashiyah, or al-Jumu’ah (in the first) and al-Munafiqun (in the second).

[175] Also recommended for he who is to attend the Jumu’ah Salaah is [1]to bathe, [2] to perfume himself, [3] to wear his finest clothing, and [4] to set off early.

1)    It is compulsory the person to be in the masjid before the khateeb stands up in the minbar. Why? Because – Allah’s command in surah Jum’ah. “O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed for the Jumuah (prayer) on Friday (Jumu’ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allâh [Jumu’ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salât (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing), That is better for you if you did but know! (62:9)”

2)    Time of rendering Salaah of Jumuah: There are differences in opinion:

a)     Hanabila view is that the Khutbah and Salaah is allowed to be rendered before zawal time (sun at its zenith= zawal).

b)     malikiyah view is that the Khutbah can be before zawal time but salaah should be after zawaal.

c)     The majority of the opinion that the Khutbah and Salaah should be only after zawaal.

If you look at the opinions, Hanabila view is close but it is better it to be done after zawaal (C) as we can come out of all differences  of opinions.

3)    If one does not catches up atleast one rakah with Imam then he is not considered as one who caught

4)    It is recommended for khateeb not to prolong the khutbah. The shorter the khutbah the closer it is close to sunnah.

5)     khutbah should not be prolonged till asr time, whoever does this is a mistake. Then salaatul jumaah in this circumstance is not acceptable and they should perform salaatul dhuhr.

6)     The sheikh advises those who perform khutbah and salaah, to set a fixed time for beginning of khutbah and fixed time for beginning of the salaatul jumuah prayer to ease people who have to go for work and ask permission etc., by doing this we are lifting up community from lot of difficulties.

Chapter: The Salah of the Two ‘Eids

Regarding the ruling of the salaatul Eid the Ulamas have differed:

1) Hanafiya – Eid is waajib

2) Someof the Ulamas is it is Sunnah

3) Shaikh Sa’d opinion – Fard Khifayah – communal obligation.

Difference of opinion among Ulamaas regarding khutbah of eid : – starting with  takbeer or alhumd (praising Allah) , Shaikh view is that it is but better to start with praise of Allah (alhumd) but both are fine.

The difference between Salatul Eid Al Adha and Salatul Eid Al Fitr,

1)      It is better salatul Eid Adha to be rendered early and Al Fitr delayed.

2)      It is recommended to eat before Fitr and not to eat anything from adha (eat from sacrifice)

3)      Khubtha for Salaatul Eid Al Fitr should be regarding those ruling pertaining to fasting and rulings of sadaqatul fitr,  In Khutbah for Salatul Eid Al Adha – Khutbah can be of anything suitable for that particular day.

       From point of discussion are the takbeer

     It is recommended to raise voice and announce the takbeer but not in communal remembrance or in a gathering or in congregation.

    The days of Dhul Hijjah are from the benevolent seasons of worship, it’s similar to last 10 days of ramadhan.

[191] Recommended acts

[i] The Mutlaq (general) Takbeer is recommended on the eve of ‘Eid as

well as throughout the first ten days of the month of Dhu’l Hijjah.

[ii] The Muqayyad (restricted) Takbeer is to be recited immediately after the obligatory prayers starting from the Fajr Salaah on the day of ‘Arafat until the ‘Asr Salaah on the last of Tashreeq.

The description of these two is that they are said as follows:

 “Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Laa ilaaha illallaah; Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, wa lilaahi’l Hamd.”

Source: Taken from Course-Lecture6: by Shaikh Saad ibn Naasir Al Shithry, a former member of the Senior Scholars’ Council of Saudia Arabia and the Vice-President of KIU based on the book ’Manhaj As Salikin’ (The Methodology of the Traveller and a Clarification of Fiqh of  the Religion) by  Shaikh Abdur -Rahman As-Sa’di.

Voluntary Salaah & Congregational Salaah

Voluntary Salaah.

[125] The most confirmed of these is the Prayer of Kusuf (solar eclipse) as the Prophet (s) prayed this and requested others to do so.

The Hanbali ulama viewed this( salah kusuf )as mustahab, recommended.

Other ulama opinion viewed this as fard kifayah – if a group of people from the community offer this salah, the obligation is lifted from the rest.

How to perform this:

[126] This Salah is prayed according to the description given in the Hadith of A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) where she stated that: “The Prophet (s) read aloud in the solar-eclipse prayer. He prayed four Rak’ahs in two (units of prayer) and with four prostrations.” [Agreed Upon]

Imam Abu Haneefa’s view is that it should be observed exactly same as salatul fajr.

According to majority, it is to perform 2 raka’hs, in each rakah there is  2 bowings (rukus). Start first rakah, after recitation of surah fatiha and a surah, you go for ruku , then when you stand up after ruku and instead of going sujood recite fatiha & Surah again and then  go again ruku, then stand up & then go for sujood. Same to be repeated in second rakaah.

Recitation aloud in solar eclipse salah is allowed.

The Witr Prayer

[127] The Witr Salah is a Stressed Sunnah  – Sunnah mu’akkadah (a confirmed Sunnah). the Prophet (s) maintained the performance of this whether he was a resident or traveller and encouraged the people to pray it.

[128] the least number of Rak’ahs for this prayer is a single Rak’ah and the

[129] most is eleven.

[130] The time that Witr should be prayed is from the time of ‘Isha’ until the time for Fajr.

[131] It is preferable that this be the final Salah of the day as the Prophet (s) said: “Make your final Salah of the night Witr.” [Agreed Upon] Also, the Prophet (s) said

[132]: “If anyone is afraid that he may not get up in the latter part of the night, he should observe Witr in the first part of it; and if anyone is eager to get up in the last part of it, he should observe Witr at the end of the night, for prh]

  • Salatul Witr – Sunnah mu’akkadah (a confirmed Sunnah). – according to majority of scholars. In case you missed it, you can make it up in the morning (shaf’an) – it should be done in an even number, not as odd number rakaahs if you are making it up in the next day.
  • Imam Abu haneefa’s (rahimahullah) opinion  is that Salatul Witr is wajib.

The ‘Rain Prayer’ (Salaatul Istisqaa’)

[133] The Istisqaa’ Salah is also Sunnah when people are in despair due to lack of rainfall and [134] is prayed like the ‘Eid Salaah outdoors (open area). It is performed same as Eid prayer There is 1st rakaat – 6 extra takbers, (total 7 takbeers including opening takbir) then in 2nd rakaah, there are 5 takbeers (excluding the Takbeer that he says when rising from prostration.)

In the first rak’ah he should say Takbeerat al-ihraam (say “Allaahu akbar” to start the prayer), after which he should say six more takbeers, because of the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), “The takbeer of al-Fitr and al-Adha is seven takbeers in the first rak’ah and five takbeers in the second, apart from the takbeer of rukoo’.” Narrated by Abu Dawood and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 639.

[136] It consists of two-Rak’ah, followed thereafter by

[137] a single Khutbah (sermon), during which forgiveness is sought in abundance along with the recitation of Qur’aanic verses that command towards seeking forgiveness, and a prolonged supplication.   Some imams are of the opinion that its one khutbah, others say 2 khutbas that is performed after this salah

[135]   One should not act in haste with regards to this dua being answered.

[138] It is incumbent before going out to offer this Salaah to perform that which guards against evil and invites mercy such as:

1. seeking the forgiveness of Allah,

2. repentance,

3. giving up oppression, (giving people their rights)

4. benevolence to others, (being good to people)

5. and other acts which Allah has made a means of earning His mercy and (a means for) protection against calamity.

  • · This salah has no association with what the meteorologist and is not done based on what they say.

The times in which it is prohibited to pray

[139] The times at which any superogatory prayers are forbidden are:

[1] from Fajr until the sun has risen in the sky to the height of a spear; (no salah except for the 2 sunnah for fajr and Salatul fajr.

[2] from the ‘Asr prayer until the Maghrib prayer (Sun sets), and from

[3] when the sun is at its zenith until it moves off from there.

And Allah knows best.

What prayers are allowed  to obeserve/not allowed during the prohibited times:

  • · Not allowed to observe the general voluntary salah.
  • · Allowed to pray those salaah that has specific reason attached to them eg: tahiyatul masjid

Congregational Prayer and the Imam

[140] The performance of the five daily prayers in congregation is an

individual obligation upon men, whether resident or travelling.

Allah says in Qurán ‘ Bow down in rukoo with those bowing down’.

[141] The smallest congregation consists of an Imam and a follower,

[142] and the larger the congregation, the more beloved it is to Allah.

[143] The Prophet (s) said: “The congregational prayer is twenty  seven times better than the prayer of a person prayed individually”[Agreed Upon]

If a person performs a salaah  himself and hten he finds a congregation observed then it is recommended (Mustahabb) for him to join that particular jam’’aah.

From the outset, the follower of the imam is expected to follow whatever the imam does, one should copy and imitate the imam immediately when imam performs that action.

The Prophet (s) also said: “The one who is most versed in the Book of Allaah should lead the group in prayer, but If they (i.e., two men) are equally versed in reciting it, then the one who is most knowledgeable regarding Sunnah (should lead), and if they are equal regarding the Sunnah, then the earliest one to emigrate; if they emigrated at the same time, then the earliest one to embrace Islam. No man must lead another in prayer where (the latter) has authority, or sit in his place of honour in his house, without his permission.” [Muslim]

E.g.: If congregation is performed in the house then the owner of the house have more right and have precedence in leading the prayer.

[147] It is incumbent,

[1] that the Imam be at the front and, (in case of women congregation, the woman imam should stand in the same row  but it in the middle of the same front row.)

[2] the followers stand close to one another (in each row), and that,

[3] the rows are completed one by one. It is recommended for them not to leave gaps.

[148] Whoever prays a Rak’ah alone behind a row, without an excuse, should repeat his Salaah. There is hadith where Prophet Muhammad said “There is no salaah for any individual behind a row” Imam Ahmad had view that salaah rendered by himself behind a complete row his salaah is not accepted. But majority of scholars they are of the view his salaah is sahih and accepted but his reward is less than those in rendered in the row . The correct view and preferred view is the first view as it coincides with evidence.

The sheikh said that the most important aspects we should bear in mind is that we should state in contentment and humility while visiting the masjid.

[150] The Prophet (s) said: “When you hear the Iqaamah (immediate call to prayer), proceed to offer the prayer with calmness and solemnity and do not make haste. And pray whatever you are able to pray (with the Imam) and complete whatever you have missed.” [Agreed Upon]

[151] And also, as stated in At-Tirmidhi: “If any of you approaches the prayer and finds the Imam in a certain position, then he should perform whatever the Imam is performing”

Source: Taken from Course-Lecture5: by Shaikh Saad ibn Naasir Al Shithry, a former member of the Senior Scholars’ Council of Saudia Arabia and the Vice-President of KIU based on the book ’Manhaj As Salikin’ (The Methodology of the Traveller and a Clarification of Fiqh of  the Religion) by  Shaikh Abdur -Rahman As-Sa’di.